<h2 class="uk-h1 uk-text-primary uk-width-2xlarge uk-margin-auto"> </h2> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US"> is an electronic half-yearly magazine that publishes articles in the field of communication and media studies as well as interdisciplinary articles. We also publish texts which can be potentially important for media researchers, including for example constructivist analyses, discourse analyses, empirical studies of media content, articles focusing on important issues discussed in the public sphere, etc.</span></p> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US">The editorial board accepts only the texts which meet the criterion of a scientific article, which means that the author proposed a new way to put or solve a problem within the broadly understood social sciences.</span></p> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US">No research perspective, theoretical approach or type of an article is imposed. We accept purely theoretical texts, empirical reports, reviews, and other articles, provided that they meet the requirements set above.</span></p> Polskie Towarzystwo Kumunikacji Społecznej oraz Instytut Dziennikarstwa, Mediów i Komunikacji Społecznej Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego en-US 2545-2320 <p>Content of the articles is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</p> Introduction <p>Introduction Article, no. 1/2022.</p> Dagmara Sidyk-Furman Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 1 5 Report from the 5th Nationwide Seminar for Young Media and Communication Scholars <p>Report from the 5th Nationwide Seminar for Young Media and Communication Scholars, Cracow, November 27, 2021 (online)</p> Tomasz Łysoń Krzysztof Marcinkiewicz Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 148 154 Media Tax As A Threat to Media Pluralism in Poland: Analysis and Future Prospects on the Example of the Hungarian Scenario <p>At the beginning of February 2021, the draft bill on the additional income of the National Health Fund, the National Monument Protection Fund, and the establishment of the Fund to Support Culture and National Heritage in the Media was included in the curriculum of legislative works of the Council of Ministers. The aim of the project is to obtain additional funds that would help to prevent the long-term health, economic, and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The resources would be derived from taxes imposed on advertising both on the Internet and in the traditional (but exclusively commercial) media. This project, colloquially referred to as the “media tax”, was soon considered a powerful blow to the free, independent media. Since their main source of income is advertising,, the proposed project could lead to a significant reduction in their level of income. This situation was almost immediately compared to the situation of the media in Hungary, where the activities of the media that do not publish pro-government content are regularly limited, both legally and financially. Similarly to the Polish draft bill, the Central European Press and Media Foundation (KESMA) was established with the aim to support the diversity of the media in Hungary. However, the foundation includes only the pro-government media. The paper presents the similarities between the bill proposed by the politicians of Law and Justice party and the activities of KESMA – a foundation established after Viktor Orbán took power. The paper also presents the threat that media taxes could pose to media pluralism in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Victoria Leszczyńska Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 6 23 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.414 Implementing Internet Geography Methodology in Media Studies: The Use of Google Trends Tool in Research on Mediatization of “Polish Order” <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this paper is to present how the elements of Internet geography methodology can be applied in media studies, basing on the case study of mediatization of the socio-political phenomenon of the “Polish Order”. We tested the functioning of the Google Trends tool in this type of research using keywords such as “Polish Order”, “New Polish Order”, “New Order” and setting the timeframe between January 31, 2021 and January 31, 2022. Our analysis is an example of how to apply a multidisciplinary methodology in studying mediatization in the “new reality”.However, the study shows that Google Trends is not a sufficient tool for this type of research and requires the use of auxiliary tools that are not capable to fully representing the broad picture of the phenomenon in a multidisciplinary perspective.</span></p> Hubert Kuliński Dariusz Poznański Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 24 35 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.415 The Condition of Polish Sports Media in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Attempt at Market Diagnosis <p>The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Poland in March 2020 has significantly changed our daily lives. It has also left its mark on the world of sports media. The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the current shape of the Polish sports media market, to present the changes that took place in this market in 2020 and 2021, and to propose a prediction on how the market may look in a few years. The research is based on an analysis of different datasets, including the market shares of sports TV stations, the sales results of sports press, and the popularity of sports websites during the pandemic. The conducted research proved that the lack of sports events during the pandemic had an impact on the significant regression of sports media in Poland in the spring of 2020. The new players on the Polish sports media market and examples of convergence in these media were also included in the paper.</p> Wojciech Skucha Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 36 59 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.396 The Institution of a Film Festival during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Case Study of the New Horizons Festival <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to present the ways of communication of a film festival during the COVID-19 pandemic. The author conducted an analysis of the social media of the New Horizons festival, which took place in November 2020. Due to the outbreak of the pandemic, both the biggest and local film events had to go online. The new reality, although posing a technical, organizational, and social challenge, also turned out to be an opportunity to expand the scale of actions that were meant to promote the culture. The paper presents the specificity of a traditional film festival, focusing on communication aspects, the viewers' perspective, and the film event's promotional strategies. Basing on the analysis of the empirical material containing statements and reactions of administrators and viewers on the festival's profiles on social media, it was shown which elements contribute to the effective creation of a virtual (and not only) community.</span></p> Joanna Najbor Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 60 85 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.331 Coronavirus on Screen: The Portrayal of the Pandemic in Songbird and Locked Down <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on changes in the film industry around the world. With the closing of the cinemas, many film productions were put on hold and the highly anticipated premieres were postponed. Like many other important events, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a source of inspiration for film directors. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ways in which the pandemic has been represented in two films with a coronavirus theme: <em>Songbird </em>(Adam Mason, 2020) and <em>Locked Down </em>(Doug Liman, 2021). Differences and similarities were discussed, as well as the relationship between the fictional representation of the pandemic and the real situation. The results of the analysis show significant differences between the films in terms of their portrayal of the pandemic stage, the restrictions put in place, the risk of infection, and the course of the disease. The common feature of these films, on the other hand, was their use of the love story formula. The paper also employs the analysis of individual film scenes.</p> Weronika Saran Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 86 101 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.398 The Image of National Minorities in Popular Culture as Exemplified by Films that Won an Academy Award in the ‘Best Picture’ Category <p>Problems related to national differences are a relevant topic raised in the public sphere. They are also present in popular culture, including cinematography. Among the films that capture such issues, it is important to focus on those awarded with an Academy Award (Oscar). The aim of this paper is to present the results of the research on the image of characters of nationalities different than American and their meaning for analyzed films. The research sample included 90 films that won the aforementioned award in the 'Best Picture' category. Particular attention was paid to cases that showed stereotypes and conflicts related to nationality and whose focus was on the role of migrants. The results of the conducted research showed that national differences were a relevant topic in the awarded films. In many of the analyzed film productions, the nationality thread played a key role, for example, in presenting the way to regain independence or the image and problems of migrants in the United States of America. Moreover, non-American characters appeared in 81% of the analyzed film productions and more than half of them played leading roles.</p> Daria Zadrożniak Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 102 121 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.393 Media Image of a Sportswoman During and After Her Career: The Example of Justyna Kowalczyk-Tekieli <p>This paper aims to present media image of a sportswoman on the example of Justyna Kowalczyk-Tekieli, basing on media articles published about her on online news portals. The research problem focuses on the image of the sportswoman in the media, as divided into two periods: during and after the end of her career. The materials used in the analysis included media statements about Justyna Kowalczyk-Tekieli published on three news portals:,, and The analysis was divided into two parts: the career period and the post-career period. While preparing the research project, the author posed three research hypotheses which mainly concerned the differences in contexts (areas of life) in which the sportswoman was presented in the media during and after her career. The results of the analysis made it possible to compare the media image of the athlete at different stages of her career.</p> Anna Dumalewska Copyright (c) 2022 Polish Communication Association 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 1 122 147 10.51480/compress.2022.5-1.418