<h2 class="uk-h1 uk-text-primary uk-width-2xlarge uk-margin-auto"> </h2> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US"> is an electronic half-yearly magazine that publishes articles in the field of communication and media studies as well as interdisciplinary articles. We also publish texts which can be potentially important for media researchers, including for example constructivist analyses, discourse analyses, empirical studies of media content, articles focusing on important issues discussed in the public sphere, etc.</span></p> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US">The editorial board accepts only the texts which meet the criterion of a scientific article, which means that the author proposed a new way to put or solve a problem within the broadly understood social sciences.</span></p> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US">No research perspective, theoretical approach or type of an article is imposed. We accept purely theoretical texts, empirical reports, reviews, and other articles, provided that they meet the requirements set above.</span></p> en-US <p>Content of the articles is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</p> (Krzysztof Marcinkiewicz) (Marcin Kulig, TOC) Mon, 14 Jun 2021 15:31:59 +0200 OJS 60 The Role of Traditional and Social Media During the ‘Pandemic’ Presidential Election in the USA: Legal and Constitutional Aspects <p>The U.S. presidential elections in 2020 went down in history for many reasons, including the record turnout, the record number of mail votes, and the announcement of victory by the losing candidate, the incumbent president. The American media expected this post-election disinformation and behaved responsibly by consistently reporting the lack of a winner when a significant number of votes remained uncounted in the key states.</p> <p>Twitter, thanks to D. Trump, became one of the main forms of communication between the president and the public. Therefore, the precautions introduced by this portal regarding the premature announcement of victory were particularly important.</p> <p>The analysis is based on the broadcasts of the main American TV stations (CNN, Fox News) and Trump’s tweets. Using critical discourse analysis, we examine the thesis that the responsibility of traditional and social media in 2020 made enormous social unrest impossible and led to a peaceful change of power.</p> Jakub Kocjan Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Denial as a Form of Adjusting to a Crisis Situation: Conspiracy Theories about the Coronavirus Pandemic among Internet Communities <p>The paper explores the problem of conspiracy theories about the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2, commonly known as the coronavirus. These theories have become a way of responding to the crisis situation and it is the definition of this phenomenon that is the starting point for further considerations. Later in the paper, we outline the role of the media in the era of the pandemic. We also define a conspiracy theory as a means to deny the situation as well as describe the most popular Internet conspiracy theories in Poland. The last part of the paper focuses on selected groups existing within Facebook, members of which are called "coronasceptics". In addition to observing the behavior of such communities, we also analyze the topics discussed by their most active members. Finally, we indicate the effects of creating and disseminating conspiracy theories about the coronavirus.</p> Karina Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Communication of Polish Speedway Clubs in Social Media: The Analysis of the Phenomenon <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of emergency connected with the epidemic threat on how the most popular Polish speedway clubs communicate on social media.</p> <p>The paper begins with a quantitative analysis of the profiles of speedway clubs in social media. The quantitative aspects considered include among others the subject matter of the posts and community involvement. On the other hand, as a part of the qualitative research, an in-depth analysis of the content published on social media was conducted.</p> <p>The mixed analysis proved that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the communication of Polish speedway clubs in social media. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic also affected the behavior of fans who changed their way of consuming the content published by the clubs in new media.</p> Artur Babicz Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Relations Between the Media and the World of Sports: Sports Events as Media Events <p>Nowadays, sport is a very important part of media reality. Thanks to the media, sports events can be watched by millions of viewers. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how sports events are perceived as media events as well as to discuss the process of the mediatization of sport and to analyze examples of the most popular sports transmissions on Polish television. In the research, we analyze the ratings of the most popular sports broadcasts in the modern history of Polish television as well as the ratings of selected sports broadcasts after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The outcomes show that sports events are very popular among Polish viewers. Additionally, the paper examines solutions used by the media to broadcast sports events during the COVID-19 pandemic. These solutions were supposed to make the sports events more diversified and more like the events held before the outbreak of the epidemic.</p> Wojciech Skucha Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 On the Art of Storytelling: The Use of Storytelling in Social Campaigns and Commercial Advertising <p>In the paper, we analyze how storytelling is used in creating social campaigns and commercials by different actors. Storytelling is a method of communication and creating relationships basing on emotions. These emotions build trust between the participants of the communication process and encourage the exchange of experience. Therefore, storytelling is increasingly used as a part of strategic planning by many companies. It is also used in sales promotion to build brand identity, strengthen recognition and credibility as well as in creating social campaigns which are important instruments of modern communication. Such social campaigns are conducted by various entities, including institutions, enterprises, NGOs, and citizens, and contribute to the improvement of the world. At the same time, companies create social campaigns to build a positive brand image. The image of a brand that not only cares about its sales and profits but also about its surroundings.</p> Anna Bielecka Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Computer Wiretapping as a Way to Combat Cybercrime in the Light of Protecting the Privacy of Communication <p>Cybercrime is a phenomenon that is becoming more and more problematic in the world of rapidly developing technologies. The paper presents the privacy of communication as well as the methods of limiting it. The next part of the paper shows the most important definitions of cybercrime as included in international acts and describes individual elements of these definitions. Problems arising in the fight against cybercrime are also presented. Then, a general characterization of so-called computer wiretapping is included. The last part of the paper is an attempt to analyze the material scope of the wiretapping, as regulated in article 237 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, in combating cybercrime.</p> Justyna Jarocka Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Increasing Validity of Online Research by Implementing New Tools and Techniques <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to present new techniques that increase the quality of data obtained through online research, basing on the example of Amazon MTurk. Using a critical analysis of the literature, preceded by a query, we identified the main sources of low-quality data such as careless responses, form-fill bots activity, and fraudulent behavior of manipulating IP addresses. The techniques implemented in the study offer several practical implications in terms of validity improvement. The results proved that 60% of observations were recognized as poor quality data. This confirms the applied control techniques to be useful and the proposed theoretical model of time operationalization to be an important indicator of careless responses.</span></p> Dominika Saad Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Countering Disinformation in the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has been followed by the large-scale dissemination of false or misleading information. In response, governments, international organizations, enterprises (including digital platforms such as Facebook or Twitter) as well as citizens' initiatives (including fact-checking activities) have been developing various methods of countering online disinformation. The paper shows the results of exploratory-descriptive research. Its main objective is to present an overview of leading anti-disinformation initiatives undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic by the public, private and non-governmental sectors. The paper also describes the emerging system of combating online propaganda, basing on the theoretical framework of the internet governance perspective.</p> Szymon Wigienka Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Television - a Healing Panacea or a Modern Pandemonium? Łukasz Flak Copyright (c) 2021 Polish Communication Association Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200