Traditional and Online Media: Relationship between Media Preference, Credibility Perceptions, Predispositions, and European Identity
Keywords:European identity, news media selection, media credibility, political predispositions
The present study investigates the relationship between people’s preference of either traditional or online media for news consumption, credibility evaluation of media and their sense of European identity. In order to do so, the study draws on the Social Identity Theory and the findings of social psychologists which situate European identity a concept that corresponds to an individuals’ subjective assignment to a collective and their affective and evaluative attachment to it. The analysis based on Eurobarometer survey data reveals that preferences of both online and traditional media for political news positively affects European identity. However, such an effect is dependent on people’s pre-existing attitudes towards the EU and if they perceive the media to be neutral and credible.
Alarcón, A. (2010). Media representation of the European Union: Comparing newspaper coverage in France, Spain and the United Kingdom. International Journal of Communication, 4, 398–415.
Avery, J. M. (2009). Video-malaise of virtuous circle? The influence of the news media on political trust. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 14(4), 410–433.
Azrout, R., van Spanje, J., & de Vreese, C. (2012). When news matters: Media effects on public support for European Union enlargement in 21 countries. Journal of Common Market Studies, 691–708.
Baccini, L., Sudulich, L., & Wall, M. (2016). Internet effects in times of political crisis: Online newsgathering and attitudes toward the European Union. Public Opinion Quarterly, 80(2), 411–436.
Bailard, C. S. (2012). Testing the internet’s effect on democratic satisfaction: A multi-methodological, cross-national approach. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 9(2), 185–204.
Bayley, P., & Williams, G. (2012). European identity: What the media say (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bergbauer, S. (2018). Explaining European identity formation: Citizens’ attachment from Maastricht Treaty to crisis. Cham: Springer Nature.
Borz, G., Brandenburg, H., & Mendez, C. (2018). The impact of EU cohesion policy on European identity: Results from the Cohesify citizen survey. Retrieved May 9, 2019, from Cohesify: http://www.cohesify.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Cohesify-survey-report_-final1.pdf
Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: a meta-analysis of current research. Information, Communication & Society 18(5), 524–538.
Buturoiu, D. R., & Corbu, N. (2015). Moderators of framing effects on political attitudes: Is source credibility worth onvestigating? Central European Political Studies Review, 17(2), 155–177.
Carey, S. (2002). Undivided loyalties: Is national identity an obstacle to European integration. European Union Politics, 3, 387–413.
Ceron, A., & Memoli, V. (2015). Trust in government and media slant: A cross-sectional analysis of media effects in twenty-seven European countries. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 20(3), 339–359.
Conti, N., & Memoli, V. (2016). Citizens, Europe and the media: Have new media made citizens more Eurosceptical? London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cram, L. (2010). Does the EU need a navel? Banal Europeanism, appreciated Europeanism and European integration. ECPR Fifth Pan-European Conference. Porto.
Curran, J. (2012). Reinterpreting the internet. In J. Curran, N. Fenton, & D. Freedman, Misunderstanding the Internet (pp. 3–33). New York: Routledge.
Curtis, K. A., & Nielsen, J. H. (2018). Predispositions matter… But how? Ideology as a mediator of personality’s effects on EU support in five countries. Political Psychology, 39(6), 1251–1270. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12546
de Vreese, C. H., & Boomgaarden, H. G. (2006). Media effects on public opinion about the enlargement of the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(2), 419–36.
de Vreese, C., & Boomgaarden, H. (2016). Effects of news media coverage on public support for European integration. In W. Van Der Brug, & C. de Vreese (Eds.), (Un)intended consequences of EU Parliamentary elections (pp. 237–254). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
de Wilde, P., Michailidou, A., & Trenz, H.-J. (2013). Contesting Europe. Exploring Euroscepticism in online media (1st Edition ed.). Colchester: ECPR Press.
Der Spiegel. (2018, June 1). Italy sends a jolt through Europe. Retrieved from Der Spiegel: http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/the-crisis-in-italy-threatens-to-become-a-european-tragedy-a-1210699.html
Diehl, T., Weeks, B., & Zúñiga, H. G. (2015). Political persuasion on social media: Tracing direct and indirect effects of news use and social interaction. New Media & Society, 18 (9), 1875–1895.
Easton 1975 – A reassessment of the concept of political support. British Journal of Political Science, 5, 435–57.
Eichenberg, R., & Dalton, R. (2007). Post-Maastricht blues: The transformation of citizen support for European integration, 1973–2004. Acta Politica, 42(2), 128–152.
European Commission. (2018). Standard Eurobarometer 90 media use in the European Union. Brussels: European Union.
Fuchs, D. (2011). Cultural diversity, European identity and legitimacy of the EU: A theoretical framework. In D. Fuchs, & H.-D. Klingemann (Eds.), Cultural Diversity, European Identity and Legitimacy of the EU (pp. 27–57). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Fuchs, D., & Schlenker, A. (2006, April 1). European identity and the legitimacy of the EU. Retrieved June 21, 2018, from Semantic scholar: shorturl.at/kmGIJ
Gabel, M. (1998). Public support for Europe: an empirical test of five theories. Journal of Politics, 60, 333–354.
Goodwin, M., Hix, S., & Pickup, M. (2018). For and against Brexit: A survey experiment of the mpact of campaign effects on public attitudes toward EU membership. British Journal of Political Science, 1–15.
Gvozden, V. (2008). Some remarks on the relationship between European identity and the European Union. In K. Hanshew (Ed.), EU=Europe? Euroskepticism and European identity (pp. 9–18). München: Forost.
Harder, A. R., Sevenans, J., & Van Aelst, P. (2017). Intermedia agenda setting in the social media age: How traditional players dominate the news agenda in election times. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 275–293.
Herrmann, R., & Brewer, M. B. (2004). Identities and institutions: Becoming European in the EU. In R. K. Herrmann, T. Risse, & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Transnational identities: Becoming European in the EU (pp. 1–22). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Ismail, A., Torosyan, G., & Tully, M. (2019). Social media, legacy media and gatekeeping: the protest paradigm in news of Ferguson and Charlottesville. The Communication Review, 22(3), 169–195.
Kaina, V., & Karolewski, P. (2013, July 23). EU governance and European identity. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from Living Reviews: http://www.livingreviews.org/lreg-2013–1
Kaufhold, K., Valenzuela, S., & De Zúñiga, G.H. (2010). Citizen journalism and democracy: How user-generated news use relates to political knowledge and participation. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87, 515–529.
Keulman, K. and Koós, A. (2014). European Identity: Its feasibility and desirability. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Kiousis, S. (2001). Public trust or mistrust? Perceptions of media credibility in the information age. Mass Communication & Society, 4(4), 381–403.
Kohring, M., & Matthes, J. (2007). Trust in news media development and validation of a multidimensional scale. Communication Research, 34(2), 231–252.
Ladd, J. (2011). The role of media distrust in partisan voting. Political Behavior 32(4), 567–585.
Langer, A., & Gruber, J. (2020). Political agenda setting in the hybrid media system: Why legacy media still matter a great deal. The International Journal of Press/Politics (Early Online Publication).
Lutz, W., & Striessnig, E. (2016, Jun 2). Demographic strengthening of European identity. Population and Development Review, 42(2), 305–311.
McLaren, L. M. (2006). Identity, interests, and attitudes to European integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Meeds, R. (2015). Changing roles of traditional and online media as trusted news sources in Qatar and their relationships with perceived important issues and interest in politics. Journal of Middle East Media, 11, 34–61.
Meyer, P. (1988). Defining and measuring credibility of newspapers: Developing an index. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 65(3), 567–574.
Michailidou, A., Trenz, H.-J., & de Wilde, P. (2014). The internet and European integration: Pro – and anti-EU debates in online news media. Berlin: Barbara Budrich.
Mols, F., & Haslam, A. (2008). Understanding EU attitudes in multi-level governance contexts: A social identity perspective. West European Politics, 31(3), 442–463.
Mourao, R., Yoo, J., Giese, S., Araiza, J., Kilgo, D., & Johnson, T. (2015). Online news, social media, and European Union attitudes: A multidimensional analysis. International Journal of Communication, 9, 3199–3222.
Nardis, Y. (2015). News, trust in the European Parliament, and EP election voting: Moderated-mediation model investigating voting in established and new member states. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 20(1), 45–66.
Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Kalogeropoulos, A., Levy, D., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). Digital news report 2018. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Schulz, A., Andı, S., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020, June 16). Reuters Institute digital news report 2020. Retrieved from University of Oxford: https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/inline-files/DNR_2019_FINAL.pdf
Newman, T., Nisbet, E., & Nisbet, M. (2018). Climate change, cultural cognition, and media effects: Worldviews drive news selectivity, biased processing, and polarized attitudes. Public Understanding of Science 27(8), 985-1002.
Norris, P. (2000). A virtuous circle? The impact of political communications in post-industrial democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rittberger, B., & Maier, J. (2008). Shifting Europe’s boundaries: mass media, public opinion and the enlargement of the EU. European Union Politics, 9(2), 243–267.
Rothmund, T., & Otto, L. (2015). The changing role of media use in political participation. Journal of Media Psychology, 28(3), 97–99.
Schäfer, C., & Weber, D. (2014). European identity in times of crisis. ECPR Graduate Student Conference in Innsbruck. Innsbruck.
Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017, September 7). News use across social media platforms 2017. Retrieved from Pew Research Center: shorturl.at/mpvzI
Sojka, A. A. (2015). We, the new citizens of Europe: European identity in Central and Eastern European Member States of the European Union. Determinants, contents and consequences. Granada: Universidad de Granada. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10481/39863
Staehelin, K. P. (2016). Drivers of change? Media effects on the identity and utilitarian EU attitude dimensions. University of Amsterdam, Department of Communication Science. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.
Stroud, N. J. (2008). Media use and political predispositions: Revisiting the concept of selective exposure. Political Behavior, 30, 341–366.
Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation between social groups. Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In J. A. Williams, & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Triga, V., & Vadratsikas, K. (2017). The impact of media representations of the EU and its policies on European identity. Department of Communication and Internet Studies. Limassol: Department of Communication and Internet Studies.
Tsfati, Y., & Ariely, G. (2014). Individual and contextual correlates of trust in media across 44 countries. Communication Research, 41(6), 760–782.
Tsfati, Y., & Cappella, J. N. (2003). Do people watch what they do not trust? Exploring the association between news media skepticism and exposure. Communication Research, 30(5), 504–529.
Tsfati, Y., & Cohen, J. (2005). Democratic consequences of hostile media perceptions: The case of Gaza settlers. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 10, 28–51.
van Spanje, J., & de Vreese, C. (2014). Europhile media and eurosceptic voting: Effects of news media coverage on eurosceptic voting in the 2009 European Parliamentary elections. Political Communication, 31(2), 325–354.
Vargo, C., & Guo, L. (2017). Networks, big data, and intermedia agenda setting: An analysis of traditional, partisan, and emerging online U.S. news. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 94(4), 1031–1055.
Weßels, B. (2007). Discontent and European identity: Three types of euroscepticism. Acta Politica, 42, 287–306.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.