Polish and Swedish journalist-politician Twitter networks: Who are the gatekeepers?
Keywords:political/government communication, journalists, ministers, press secretaries, realtions, gatekeepers, network analysis, Twitter
The relationship between journalists and political sources takes different forms and extends from adversarial to advocating. Th e question which side ‘leads the tango’ has always been central to this approach. Since technological development has led to hybridization of themedia systems, the nature of communication has been reshaped in many ways. The emergence of social media has challenged the journalistic profession, especially journalists’ role as gatekeepers, but provided extra space for interaction with sources. Increasing professionalization of politics has reinforced the role of press secretaries/advisers. This is a comparative study of interaction among Polish and Swedish journalists, ministers, and press secretaries in Twitter provided by network analysis and three social network concepts as density, modularity, and centralization. In this analysis, a more influential position is conceptualized in terms of ‘communicative resources’ or ‘accumulated capacity’. Swedish journalists have more opportunities to act as gatekeepers or ‘key users’ in the Twitter network; in Poland, it is rather the political side.
Andersson-Schwarz, J., Hammarlund, J., Grado, S., & Kjellberg, M. (2015). Opinioner och offentligheter online. Vad gör en politisk utsaga framgångsrik? Den användardrivna kommunikation-ens villkor. Slutrapport [Opinions and publicity online. What makes a political statement successful? Conditions of user-driven communication. Final report]. Internetfonden. Stockholm, November 2015.
Balčytienė, A., & Moring, T. (2018, forthcoming). Political communication cultures in four countries. In: K. M. Johansson & G. Nygren (eds.), Close and Distant: Political Executive — Media Relations in Four Countries. Göteborg: Nordicom.
Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2008). Toward a theory of network gatekeeping: A framework for exploring information control. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(9), pp. 1493–1512.
Berkowitz D. A. (2009). Reporters and their sources. In: K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (eds.), The Handbook of Journalism Studies. New York: Routledge.
Bruggeman, J. (2008). Social Networks. An Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castells, M. (2011). A network theory of power. International Journal of Communication, 5, pp. 773–787.
Chadwick, A. (2013). The Hybrid Media System: Politics and Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Coddington, M., & Holton, A. E. (2014). When the gates swing open: Examining network gatekeeping in a social media setting. Mass Communication and Society, 17(2), pp. 236–257.
Dobek-Ostrowska, B. (2012). Italianization (or mediterraneaization) of the Polish media system? Reality and perspective. In: D. C. Hallin & P. Mancini (eds.), Comparing Media Systems beyond the Western World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 26–50.
Dobek-Ostrowska, B. (2015). Journalism and politics. In: G. Nygren & B. Dobek-Ostrowska (eds.), Journalism in Change — Professional Journalistic Cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden. Frank-furt am Main: Peter Lang Edition, pp. 179–210.
Dobek-Ostrowska, B., & Nożewski, J. (2018, forthcoming). Poland — independent vs. servile relations. In: K. M. Johansson & G. Nygren (eds.), Close and Distant: Political Executive — Media Relations in Four Countries. Göteborg: Nordicom.
Ekman, M., & Widholm, A. (2014). Politicians as media producers. Journalism Practice, Vol. 9(1), pp. 78–91.
Falkheimer, J. (2005). Formation of a region: Source strategies and media images of the Sweden– Danish Öresund region. Public Relations Review, 31, pp. 293–295.
Gans, H. J. (2003). Democracy and the News. New York: Oxford University Press.
Głowacki, M. (2008). Political pressure on public television in Poland. The case of national broadcasting council. In: B. Dobek-Ostrowska & M. Głowacki (eds.), Comparing Media Systems in Central Europe. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, pp. 111–121.
Hagmanch, C. (2007). Journalister oroas över pressekreterares insyn [Journalists concerned about press secretaries’ scrutiny]. Journalisten. 27.02.2007. Retreived on 10 May, 2018 from https:// www.journalisten.se/nyheter/journalister-oroas-over-pressekreterares-insyn.
Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2017). Ten years after comparing media systems: What have we learned?. Political Communication, Vol. 34, Issue 2, pp. 155–171.
Heinderyckx, F., & Vos, P. T. (2016). Reformed gatekeeping. Communication and Media, XI (36), pp. 29–46.
Himelboim, I., Smith, M. A., Rainie, L., Shneiderman, B., & Espina, C. (2017). Classifying Twitter topic-networks using social media analysis. Social Media + Society, Vol. 1–13, pp. 1–13.
Johansson, E. (2018, forthcoming). Social media for top politicians: Comparative case illustrations from Finland, Poland and Sweden. In: K. M. Johansson & G. Nygren (eds.), Close and Distant: Political Executive — Media Relations in Four Countries. Göteborg: Nordicom.
Johansson, K. M., Malling, M., & Nygren, G. (2018, forthcoming). Sweden — a professionally symbiotic relationship. In: K. M. Johansson and G. Nygren (eds.), Close and Distant: Political Executive — Media Relations in Four Countries. Göteborg: Nordicom.
Keegan, B., & Gergle, D. (2010). Egalitarians at the Gate: One-Sided Gatekeeping Practices in Social Media. Paper presented at the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW 2010, pp. 131–134.
Larsson, A. O., & Moe, H. (2011). Studying political micro-blogging: Twitter users in the 2010 Swedish election campaign. New Media and Society, 14(5), pp. 729–747.
Marland, A., Lewis, J. P., & Flanagan, T. (2016). Governance in the age of digital media and branding. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, 30(1), pp. 125–141.
McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. 6th edition. Los Angeles: Sage. Nuernbergk, Ch., & Conrad, J. (2016). Conversations and campaign dynamics in a hybrid media environment: Use of Twitter by members of the German Bundestag. Social Media + Society, Vol. January–March, pp. 1–14.
Papathanassopoulos, S., Negrine, R., Mancini, P., & Holtz-Bacha, Ch. (2007). Political communication in the era of professionalisation. In: R. Negrine, Ch. Holtz-Bacha, P. Mancini, & S. Papatha (eds.), The Professionalisation of Political Communication. Chicago: Intellect Books, pp. 9–25.
Strömbäck, J., & Nord, L. (2006). Do politicians lead the tango? A study of the relationship between Swedish journalists and their political sources in the context of election campaigns. European Journal of Communication, Vol. 21(2), pp. 147–164.
Van Dijck, J., & Poell, T. (2013). Understanding social media logic. Media and Communication, 1(1), pp. 2–14.
Verweij, P. (2012). Twitter links between politicians and journalists. Journalism practice, Vol. 6(5–6), pp. 680–691.
Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (2009). Social Network Analysis. Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Svenskarna och internet 2016. Retrieved on 10 September, 2017 from https://www.iis.se/docs/ Svenskarna_och_internet_2016.pdf.
Statista — The portal for statistics. Retrieved on 10 September, 2017 from https://www.statista.com/ statistics/284441/poland-social-network-penetration/.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Polish Communication Association
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.