An integrated model for public service media governance based on participatory governance and actor-centered institutionalism: Initial application to the independence of the Polish public broadcaster TVP S.A.


  • Magdalena Ploch WWU University of Münster



participatory media governance, actor-centered institutionalism, public service media (PSM), civil society, transformation, Telewizja Polska S.A.


The aim of the article is to introduce a governance analysis model which can be used for the investigation of public service media PSM change processes. With its help it is possible to explore to what extent the PSM system is dependent on political as well as economic influences in a timeline. The PSM governance model derives from the theoretical framework of the actor-centered institutionalism ACI and the participatory media governance approach. Participatory media gov­ernance allows civil society members to be included in the investigation. With the help of ACI and the agent-structure dynamics model one can analyze three different spheres of actor’s actions which can be observed empirically: sub-systemic orientation horizons, institutional arrangements and the actor’s constellations. Based on these preliminary considerations, the model is applied to PSM governance in Poland since the socio-political transition of 1989 until 2016.

Author Biography

Magdalena Ploch, WWU University of Münster

Magdalena Ploch is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Münster, Germany. Her research and publications concentrate on issues of media independence, transformation and democratization processes in Central and Eastern European countries and Public Service Media in a participatory governance perspective. Current publication: (2017): Die Regulierung von Telewizja Polska S.A. Vom Staatsrundfunk zum öffentlichen Sendeveranstalter im Sinne einer demokratischen, partizipativen Media Governance? In: Djerdj T. et al. (eds.): Macht — Medien — Mitteleuropa. 1. Auflage. Wien: new academic press, pp. 101–124.


Arato, A. (1981). Civil Society Against the State: Poland 1980-81. Telos (47), pp. 23–47.

Bajomi-Lázár, P. (2015). Political Actors and the Colonization of the Media. In: Zielonka, J. (ed.), Media and politics in new democracies. Europe in a comparative perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barber, B.R. (2004). Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age (20th anniversary ed. with a new preface). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Beisheim, M., Schuppert, G.F. (eds.) (2007). Staatszerfall und Governance. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Bennett, J. (2014). Introduction: The Utopia of Independent Media: Independence, Working with Freedom and Working for Free. In: Bennett, J., Strange, N. (eds.), Routledge Research in Cultural and Media Studies. Media independence. Working with freedom or working for free? New York: Routledge.

Benz, A., Dose, N. (2010). Von der Governance-Analyse zur Policytheorie. In: Benz, A., Dose, N. (eds.), Lehrbuch: Vol. 1. Governance-Regieren in komplexen Regelsystemen. Eine Einführung (2nd ed.). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Benz, A., Papadopoulos, Y. (eds.) (2006). Routledge/ECPR studies in European political science: Vol. 44. Governance and democracy: Comparing national, European and international experiences. Lon-don/New York: Routledge. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from

Bevir, M. (2011). Governance as Theory, Practice, and Dilemma. In: Bevir, M. (ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Governance. Los Angeles, London, New Dehli, Singapore, Washington DC: SAGE.

Borowik, B. (2011) . Obywatelska koncepcja mediów publicznych — perspektywa politologiczna [Social concept of public service media — political approach]. In: Bielawski, P., Ostrowski, A. (eds.), Media publiczne. System medialny w Polsce: pytania i dezyderaty [Public service media. Media system in Poland: questions and desiderata]. Poznań, Opole, Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Lena.

Carpentier, N. (2011). Media and participation: A site of ideological-democratic struggle. Bristol, Chicago: Intellect.

Carpentier, N. (2016). Beyond the Ladder of Participation: An Analytical Toolkit for the Critical Analysis of Participatory Media Processes. Javnost — The Public, 23(1), pp. 70–88.

Council of Europe (2009). Public service media governance: looking to the future: Discussion paper pre-pared by the Secretariat. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from media/doc/PSMgovernance_en.pdf.

Crouch, C. (2008). Post-democracy. Cambridge: Polity.

Dahl, R.A. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven Conn: Yale University Press.

Dahlgren, P. (2003). Reconfiguring Civic Culture in the New Media Milieu. In: Corner, J., Pels, D. (eds.), Media and Political Style: Essays on Representation and Civic Culture. London: Sage.

Donges, P. (2002). Rundfunkpolitik zwischen Sollen, Wollen und Können: Eine theoretische und komparative Analyse der politischen Steuerung des Rundfunks. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.

Donges, P. (2003). Autonomie sichern, Offenheit erhöhen — Sicherung des Public Service. In: Donges, P., Puppis, M. (eds.), Die Zukunft des öffentlichen Rundfunks — internationale Beiträge aus Wissenschaft und Praxis. Köln: Herbert von Halem.

Donges, P. (2007). The New Institutionalism as a theoretical foundation of media governance. Com-munications, 32(3), pp. 325–330.

EBU (2014). Vision2020: An EBU Project Connecting to a networked society FULL REPORT. Re-trieved March 31, 2016 from

EBU (2015). Legal Fokus: Governance Principles for PSM. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from http://

Eilders, C. (2011). Zivilgesellschaftliche Beteiligung im Medienbereich. In: Kleinsteuber, H.J., Nehls, S. (eds.), Media governance in Europa. Regulierung — Partizipation — Mitbestimmung. Wiesbaden: VS. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Fung, A., Wright, E.O. (2001). Deepening Democracy: Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance. Politics & Society, 29(1), pp. 5–41.

Galtung, J. (1999). State, Capital, and the Civil Society: The Problem of Communication. In: Vincent R., Nordenstreng K., Traber M. (eds.), Towards Equity in Global Communication: MacBride Update. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp. 3–21.

Geissel, B. (2012). Impacts of democratic innovations in Europe: Findings and desiderata. In: Geissel B., Newton, K. (eds.), Evaluating Democratic Innovations. Curing the democratic malaise? London, New York: Routledge.

Głowacki, M. (2015). Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public. Media and Communication, vol. 3, pp. 26–34.

Głowacki, M., Urbaniak, P. (2011). Poland: Between accontability and instrumentalization. In: Eberwein, T., et al. (eds.), Mapping media accountability — in Europe and beyond. Köln: Halem.

Grote, J.R., Gbikpi, B. (eds.). (2002). Participatory governance: Political and societal implications; [Conference “Democratic and Participatory Governance: From citizens to Holders” held in Florence in September 2000]. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Hamelink, C.J., Nordenstreng, K. (2007). Towards Democratic Media Governance. In: de Bens, E. (ed.), Changing media — changing Europe: v. 4. Media between culture and commerce. Bristol, UK, Chicago, IL: Intellect Books.

Hess, A. (2015). The Polish think tank scene. In: Dobek-Ostrowska, B., Głowacki, M. (eds.), Democracy and media in Central and Eastern Europe 25 years on. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Peter Lang.

Jakubowicz, K. (1996). Civil Society and Public Sphere in Central and Eastern Europe: A Polish Case Study. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from

Jakubowicz, K. (2008). Participation and Partnership: a copernican revolution to reengineer Public Service Media for the 21st century: RIPE Keynote Presentation. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from http://

Jakubowicz, K. (2013). Media a demokracja w XXI wieku: Poszukiwania nowych modeli. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Poltext.

Jarren, O., Donges, P. (2005). Der öffentliche Rundfunk in der Gesellschaft. Begründung, Wandel und Konflikte um eine Leitidee am Beispiel der Schweiz. In: Langenbucher, W.R., Ridder, C.M., Saxer, U., Steiniger, C. (eds.), Bausteine einer Theorie des öffentlich - rechtlichen Rundfunks. Festschrift für Marie-Luise Kiefer. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Jarren, O., Donges, P., Künzler, M. (2001). Der schweizerische öffentliche Rundfunk im Netzwerk: Möglichkeiten der Absicherung und Bindung der SRG an die Gesellschaft. Reihe Diskussionspunkt: Bd. 41. Zürich: IPMZ.

Karppinen, K., Moe, H. (2013). A critique of “media governance”. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from

Karppinen, K., Moe, H. (2016). What We Talk About When Talk About “Media Independence”. Javnost — The Public, 23(2), pp. 105–119.

Klein, A., Rohde, M. (2003). Konturen der Zivilgesellschaft — Zur Profilierung eines Begriffs: Editor-ial zum Themenheft. Forschungsjournal Neue Soziale Bewegungen, 16(2), pp. 2–5.

Klimkiewicz, B. (2015). Between Autonomy and Dependency: Funding Mechanisms of Public Service Media in Selected European Countries. In: Arriaza Ibarra, K., Nowak, E., Kuhn, R. (eds.), Rout-ledge studies in European communication research and education. Public service media in Europe. A comparative approach. London, New York: Routledge.

Kooiman, J.P. (2003). Governing as governance. London: SAGE.

Lowe, G.F. (ed.) (2010). The public in public service media: RIPE 2009. Göteborg: Nordicom. Luthard, W. (1999). Politische Steuerung und akteurzentrierter Institutionalismus. Swiss Political Science Review, 5(2), pp. 155–166.

Mayntz, R. (1988). Funktionelle Teilsysteme in der Theorie sozialer Differenzierung. In: Mayntz R., Rosewitz, B. (eds.), Schriften des Max-Planck-Instituts für Gesellschaftsforschung, Köln: Bd. 1. Dif-ferenzierung und Verselbständigung. Zur Entwicklung gesellschaftlicher Teilsysteme. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus.

Mayntz, R. (2004). Governance Theory als fortentwickelte Steuerungstheorie?: MPIfG Working Paper 04/1. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from

Mayntz, R. (2009). Governancetheorie: Erkenntnisinteresse und offene Fragen. In: Grande, E., May, S. (eds.), Schriften des Münchner Centrums für Governance-Forschung: Vol. 1. Perspektiven der Governance-Forschung. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

McLaverty, P. (2011). Participation. In: Bevir, M. (ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Governance. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC: Sage.

McQuail, D. (1992). Media Performance: Mass Communication and the Public Interest. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE.

Media and Information Society Division Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs Council of Europe (2009). Public service media governance: Looking to the future: Discussion paper prepared by the Secretariat. Retrieved March 31, 2016 from standardsetting/media/doc/PSMgovernance_en.pdf.

Michnik, A. (1985). Letters from prison and other essays. Studies in Societies and culture in East Central Europe: Vol. 2. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Retrieved March 28, 2016 from

Newman, S. (2000). Globalization and Democracy. In: Greven, M.T., Pauli, L.W. (eds.), Democracy beyond the state? The European Dilemma and the emerging Global Order. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Norris, P. (2012). Making democratic governance work: How regimes shape prosperity, welfare, and peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Offe, C. (2009). Governance: An “Empty Signifier”? Constellations, 16(4), pp. 550–562.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Puppis, M. (2007). Media Governance as a horizontal extension of Media Regulation: The importance of Self- and Co-Regulation. Communications, 32(3), pp. 330–336.

Puppis, M. (2010a). Einführung in die Medienpolitik (2., überarb. Aufl.). UTB: 2881: Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, Politikwissenschaft. Konstanz: UVK-Verl.-Ges.

Puppis, M. (2010b). Media Governance: A New Concept for the Analysis of Media Policy and Regulation. Communication, Culture & Critique, 3(2), pp. 134–149.

Rhodes, R.A.W. (1996). The New Governance: Governing without Government. Political Studies, 44(4), pp. 652–667.

Schimank, U. (2007). Theorien gesellschaftlicher Differenzierung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozial-wissenschaften.

Scott, W.R. (2001). Institutions and organizations. Foundations for organizational science. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

Smolar, A. (1996). From Opposition to Atomization. Journal of Democracy, 7(1), pp. 24–38. Søndergaard, H. (1999). Some Reflections on Public Service Broadcasting. Nordicom Review, 20(1), pp. 21–28.

Stępka, P. (2010). Public Service Broadcasting in Poland: Between Politics and Market. In: Iosifidis, P. (ed.), Reinventing Public Service Communication. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Syvertsen, T. (1999). The many uses of the “public service” concept. Nordicom Review, 20(1), pp. 5–12. Syvertsen, T. (2004). Citizens, Audiences, Customers and Players: A Conceptual Discussion of the Relationship Between Broadcasters and Their Publics. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(3), pp. 363–380.

Voltmer, K. (2000). Massenmedien und demokratische Transformation in Osteuropa. Strukturen und Dynamik öffentlicher Kommunikation im Prozeß des Regimewechsels. In: Klingemann, H.D., Neidhardt, F., (eds.), Zur Zukunft der Demokratie. Herausforderungen im Zeitalter der Globalisier-ung. Berlin: Edition Sigma.

Wagner, M., Berg, A.C. (2015). EBU Legal Focus: Governance Principles for Public Service Media. Retrieved March 28, 2016 from

Walk, H. (2011). Partizipative Governance. Beteiligungsformen in der Klimapolitik. In: Demirović, A., Walk, H. (eds.), Demokratie und Governance. Kritische Perspektiven auf neue Formen politischer Herrschaft. Münster: Westfälisches Dampfboot.

Załęski, P.S. (2012). Neoliberalizm i społeczeństwo obywatelskie. Monografie Fundacji na rzecz Nauki Polskiej. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika.

Zimmer, A. (2012). Die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Zivilgesellschaft. Retrieved March 28, 2016 from




How to Cite

Ploch, M. . (2017). An integrated model for public service media governance based on participatory governance and actor-centered institutionalism: Initial application to the independence of the Polish public broadcaster TVP S.A . Central European Journal of Communication, 10(2(19), 193-209.



Scientific Papers